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At this moment in this task, the following achievements were reached:

  1. a) In almond, an irrigation and a balanced nitrogen fertilization program allows its adaptation to climate stress, avoiding losses of yield and quality. An irrigation with 35% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) allows the plants to adapt to hot temperatures, without losses on kernel yield, size or compositional quality. The levels of α-tocopherols are the highest at this irrigation rate. In addition, it is possible to reduce their alternate behaviour due to climate pattern with the application of nitrogen fertilizer rates between 25 and 50 kg ha-1, applied to the soil at the begging of spring.
  2. b) In hazelnut, foliar sprayers of salicylic acid (0.01% in water), silicon (1% in water) and kaolin (4% in water) before fruit maturation, are able to increase fruit biometric properties (weight, length, wide, volume and kernel weight) and decrease the negative impact of summer stress of hot temperatures. In addition, 13 varieties were characterized from allergenic potential point of view, using two allergic patient’s sera. Low variability with respect to the allergenic potential were found.
  3. c) In chestnut, protective effect of silicon (Si) was found against Phytophthora cinnamomi (causal agent of ink disease) and Chryphonectria parasitica (causal agent of blight disease), an plants fertilized with Si presented higher capacity to support heat and water stress due to increments in 20% on phenol content and presence of amorphous silicon deposits (phytoliths). In addition, bioenergetic studies on chloroplasts also showed an increase on the fatty acid saturation degree.
  4. d) In sweet-cherry, the application of natural compounds in pre-harvest period (4th, 7th and 8th week after blossom) can attenuate the negative impact of excessive temperatures or excess precipitation near the harvest period. The external application of calcium (1% in water) reduces the occurrence of cracking and increase the biometric properties of fruit (size, dimension, weight and colour) and thus, its quality, while the application of glycine-betaine (0.1% in water) increase the content of individual polyphenols. The application of natural biostimulant (seaweed-based product) at 200 mL/100 L in water increased the fruit content of vitamin C.
  5. e) A tri-dimensional digital and photo-based method to identify the elastic properties of the cuticle of sweet-cherry was developed, based on compression test of parallel.
  6. f) In blueberry crop, it was found that it is possible to set an optimum harvesting time based on a method that combines the measurements of free-sugars, organic acids, vitamin C, anthocyanins and plant hormones.

The completion of these main achievements allowed us to present the results of the project in national and international seminars and congress as well as to publish them in international Journals with peer review.


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